CAD, CAD Technology, dynamic modeling, CAD modeling

How CAD Technology benefits from Dynamic Modeling

Alexander Pope, in the 17 th century, coined the phrase “A little knowledge is a dangerous thing”. This phrase holds true in many cases, because a small amount of knowledge could lead to overconfidence. An overconfident person is likely to make decisions hastily without taking all facts into account.

What does this phrase have to do with Computer Aided Design? A CAD engineer who is trained primarily to use CAD software tools, but who lacks sound theoretical training, fits this phrase in many respects. Such a CAD engineer who has successfully solved many routine design problems with CAD tools could become overconfident in his/her design skills.

The time will come when this overconfident engineer, who lacks adequate theoretical training, models a non-routine problem incorrectly and misinterprets the results. Consequently, an incorrect design for a product is implemented. Unless the design error is caught and fixed, the launched product will be an accident waiting to happen. Failure of a poorly-designed product could cost a company a lot of time, money, and loss of reputation.

Many CAD and engineering organizations are aware of such dangers, and they include Dynamic Modeling into their product design cycles. Doing so provides “checks and balances” before a design materializes into a product.

This article examines the roles that Dynamic Modeling plays in CAD-driven product design.

Specifically, the article tries to answer these questions:

  • What is Dynamic Modeling, and is it needed for all product designs?
  • Are all CAD engineers qualified to perform CAD enabled dynamic modeling?
  • What are the benefits of Dynamic Modeling?
  • How is Dynamic Modeling being used?

What Is Dynamic Modeling and Is It Needed for all Product Designs?

Dynamic modeling simulates the behavior of an object over time. In engineering, dynamic models are described in terms of causal loops or feedback and control systems.

The causal loop captures the structural makeup or components that comprise a complex system or product, and the interactions between them. Computer models are built to simulate how the system responds to time-varying states and external loads, and how the system responds over time.

Dynamic modeling is not restricted to time-variant behavior of physical structures, but it is also used for artificial intelligence, economics, psychology, political science, and many other disciplines.

Not all products require dynamic modeling. For example, stationary objects such as statues are not subjected often to time varying externals loads such as wind forces or earthquakes. Therefore, static models suffice for determining their structural integrity.

Examples of good candidates for dynamic modeling are:

  • Bridges, which experience variable loadings, wind forces, and perhaps earthquakes.
  • Offshore oil production platforms, which are subjected to ocean waves, wind, and current loadings.
  • Automobiles, which are subjected to shock loadings and aerodynamic forces.
  • Buildings and structures in earthquake-prone areas, because they endure seismic loadings.  

Are all CAD Engineers Qualified to Perform CAD Enabled Modeling?

Not all CAD engineers have the skills to perform dynamic modeling adequately. CAD software tools which provide its capabilities will incorporate them as FEA, CFD, and other software packages. The CAD engineer who has not taken advanced courses in Solid Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics, Feedback and Control Systems, Vibration Analysis, Random Mechanics, and similar courses may lack sufficient theoretical skills to adequately model and interpret non-routine design problems with CAD software.

Dynamic modeling which is performed incorrectly could produce design errors with disastrous consequences, if the errors:

  • Are not detected and corrected by peers,
  • Are not detected during design reviews,
  • Are not detected during the prototyping and testing phase.

Once a poorly designed product is launched, the consequences could mean applying fixes in the field, having a product recall, or withdrawing a product. None of these options is desirable, because it creates customer dissatisfaction, possible lawsuits, loss of income, and loss of reputation.

What are the Benefits of Dynamic Modeling?

If properly performed, Dynamic Modeling can reveal design flaws that may not show up readily during the prototyping and testing phases of the product design cycle.

Unique benefits that dynamic modeling provides include:

  • Identifying interactions between subsystems of a complex product which may be too expensive to create during physical prototyping and testing,
  • Identifying potential failure modes which should be tested in physical prototypes, before hard tooling,
  • Simulating dynamic loadings which may be difficult to create during actual testing,
  • Identifying functional limitations on the use of a product.

Although some complex systems may be difficult to model accurately, it provides extra product performance data from virtual prototypes. Testing and validation of data obtained from virtual prototypes within physical prototypes should create a robust and reliable design.

How is Dynamic Modeling being used?

A few examples should clarify the benefits that Dynamic Modeling brings to CAD design work.

  • Engineers at NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) are building a horizontal smokestack computer model called the Scale-Model Smokestack Simulator. The Dynamic Model will predict the amount of carbon dioxide coming out of smokestacks with 1% accuracy, compared with current measurement accuracy of 10 to 20%. This Dynamic Model will make it easier to address the problem of CO2 emissions which the EPA is concerned about.
  • The University of Le Havre uses Dynamic Modeling to efficiently calculate optimized mold measurements for a ship hull.
  • SolidWorks provides modeling software within their CAD offerings for all types of industrial robot movements. The software also translates code from one robot to another, and can import models from major CAD systems.
  • It is being used extensively to study the impact of Self Driving vehicles on traffic flow.

Conclusions

When it is used effectively and correctly, creates virtual product prototypes that can identify failure modes and functional limitations of a design at an early stage.

When dynamic modeling is used together with Additive Manufacturing (or 3D printing) for physical product prototyping, the design cycle could be significantly shortened. Consequently, reliable and cost effective products will be launched, and the cost saving will benefit both the product manufacturer and the consumer.

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3D printing, music industry, music storage, computer-aided design

How Music Industry impacted by 3D Printing

Digital preservation of works for books, and arts, were stored while talking about music, pictures and movies. One advantage of storing information in digitised format is it transports electronically. It comes with backup copies for data placed in many remote locations. Another benefit it includes is the fidelity of the information preserved indefinitely.

Unfortunately, it’s likely to provide significant amounts of movies, music, and works of art that are lost forever. It comes with using reliable methods for preserving music that wasn’t available previously. For example, much music is stored on wax discs played on phonographs or other old movies. However, original recordings come with digitised, natural degradation of wax recordings and tapes made with large amounts of music and films unrecoverable. Though old movies and music are digitally remastered, using true fidelity of the multimedia data that are lost quickly.

Works of art come with longevity and are preserved in several forms. Some artifacts remain as carvings on stone and wood, some artifacts remain as statues, and some artifacts remain as stylus-based ink recordings on papyri, scrolls, paper, and other media. Except for stone carvings and statues, which could be considered to a reasonable extent as naturally non-destructible, recordings on wood-based products such as papyri, scrolls and paper degrade quickly in high humidity environments. Recordings on wood-based media need low humidity or vacuum storage conditions to survive over long periods.

Using lost objects for cultural and historical value forever takes natural or artificial disasters. It needs to preserve musical data that asks, “How does 3D printing impact the music industry?” To answer this query, it helps to address the topics like:

  • What methods to use historically to store music?
  • What modern methods are utilised for storing music?
  • How useful is it to support 3D Printing for the music industry?

WHAT METHODS HAVE BEEN USED HISTORICALLY WITH STORE MUSIC?

It’s a traditional method used to store music that relies on writing music on sheets of paper. Let’s say classical orchestral works by Mozart, Bach, Beethoven and others are published as sheet music.

The method used to store music cannot offer good longevity and permanence using a medium for storing music over time and storing music that can easily be lost due to fire or floods.

It adds improvements with storing music that utilise an audio format together with physical recording media.

Over the last 100 years, musical storage relies on the below methods:

A few years ago, audio data came in the form of sound waves that transcribe to glass, paper, and wax cylinders as mechanical analog signals recorded as lateral grooves. Also, the stylus motion adds grooves used to render the recorded audio data. The products in this era cover the Edison phonograph, the Dictaphone and the phonograph disk.

1900 and 1948 came with many improvements that utilized magnetization and electrical amplification for analog signals with high fidelity audio. The products cover magnetic tape, audio cassettes, and vinyl phonograph discs.

They are moving on with 1948 and 1970, the powerful audio signal process techniques that utilised Dolby noise reduction covering stereophonic rendition. The products in this era come with 4-track and 8-track stereo, the microcassette, minicassette and compact cassette.

After 1970, the digital processing tech used advanced products that utilise audio formats, including MPEG, MLP, and other audio formats found in products that provide CDs, DVDs, HD DVDs, and various Blu-ray technology.

WHAT MODERN METHODS ARE UTILISED FOR STORING MUSIC?

The music library grows at an alarming rate, where the compression methods develop to store the volume of audio data used in the cloud by making it available to users and using them as web streaming technology.

Well-known competitors in this audio storage and streaming marketplace include the following:

Apple’s iTunes stores over 43 million songs using downloaded on iPad, iPhones, iPods or other Apple-based products. The audio formats offer Apple style, adding conversion software that primarily uses services that do not use web streaming.

The Amazon Cloud Player uses services that are similar to Apple iTunes. It uses Amazon Player that utilises a compression than iTunes. Being lossy means the original music that’s not rendered with true fidelity. The portions of the audio signal dropped when rendering so that the human ear cannot easily detect the difference between the actual and rendered sound.

Google Play Music offers free access to over 30 million songs. The services are free and are considered a bargain compared with the other paid services. Both Google and Amazon services utilise web streaming with ease.

HOW USEFUL IS 3D PRINTING FOR THE MUSIC INDUSTRY?

A fantastic benefit includes 3D Printing, which brings musical recordings stored in digital format recalled and reprinted at will. For sentimental reasons, some people like to play music available on phonographs. Using 3D Printing, both old and modern music can be stored in digital form, retrieving 3D printed used on improved durable media. More sophisticated materials are available for 3D printers, and high-quality audio recordings are used to get outstanding audio fidelity and rendition. Apart from this printing musical recordings, the 3D printers are used primarily to print musical instruments like drums, guitars, pianos and saxophones. The list covers musical instruments that grow as 3D printing materials like:

To summarise, 3D Printing makes it possible to:

  • Store music digitally with reproduce it faithfully
  • Print a variety of musical instruments.

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difference between IGES and STEP Files

What is difference between IGES and STEP Files?

What is difference between IGES and STEP Files?

IGES and STEPFILES both are "neutral file formats". They are compatible with using different 3D packages. The IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) is the oldest developed in the mid '70s used to solve compatibility issues between different software packages. Let’s discuss about each of them in brief:

STEP (Standard for the Exchange of Product data) created in the '80s and uses ISO as an improvement on IGES. It’s most widespread format in IGES and can contain basic 2D or 3D data. It is more versatile and contains additional data using material information and tolerances.

For most design engineers, the scenario looks familiar: Let’s say, Person 1, the lead designer of company X, require to send a CAD model to Person 2, the design engineer for company Y. Person 1 designed the part and Person 2 works in Pro Engineer. Person 1’s file can’t be opened in person 2’s software, therefore, it become simple to transfer a part file and become a problem.

The issue of non-interchangeable proprietary file formats for CAD data have work for decades. The software companies promote the use of modelling packages and ensure that only their package can open a file that created in their software. Unfortunately, all major 3D modelling software company can communicate between them is an issue.

Also, a solution exists in the form of neutral file formats where one canpass between different modelling software packages. One can use a neutral file format to pass CAD mode and then open it and work with it as required. The most common variants of all neutral file formats are the IGES and STEP formats. User recognise these formats by understanding the file name that ends with. iges, .igs, .stp, or .step.

THE HISTORY OF NEUTRAL FILE FORMATS

Talking about mid-seventies, the United States government realised that it had an issue. With using the unique proprietary CAD programs adds different contractors, millions of dollars and countless hours in it. They wasted the tedious process for sharing and converting data between all the systems. One can imagine how many times the scenario has played out on a large project such as an aircraft carrier or missile delivery system using hundreds of suppliers. Moving on with Air Force launched project in conjunction with Boeing.

There are large industry partners that create a neutral file format. The result was IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification).It comes with flexible file format that can code drawing, 3d geometry, and add critical CAD data in a format can be shared between major CAD systems. The US Department of Defence require IGES format that is used for all weapons that has been adopted in other industries as well.

STEP (Standard for the Exchange of Product data) was created in the eighties along with an improvement on the IGES standard by ISO (the International Standards Organization). The goal creates global standard based on awide range of CAD-related data types. It adds complexity that undertake years of development and still continuously upgrade it. It offers largest ISO’s standards.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN IGES AND STEP

IGES uses widespread standard, that supports all major CAD systems worldwide.

An IGES file contains basic CAD information including 2D and 3D geometry such as surfaces, curves, and wireframes.

  • It comes with presentation elements including drafting elements like lines and annotations.
  • It offers electronic and pipe schematic elements along with finite element modelling.
  • It comes with language and product definition data.

STEP comes with newer standard whereas IGES is not widespread. There are major CAD programs that is well-recognise as STEP and it’s steadily grown as their standard improves.

STEP documents contain the same product definition information as IGES, with the following additions such as Topology, Tolerances, Material properties and various other complex product data.

PRACTICAL CONSIDERATIONS

In several cases there are solid models or drawings shared with either file format that work fine. It comes with compatibility that is safest to start with IGES. It comes in most common format that is most likely to work by receiving party’s software. However, a designer considers the data to be shared with ease. If the file contains more product definition (for example, geometric dimensioning and tolerancing data, material properties, etc), then STEP would be a better choice.

It is not uncommon for supplier to trouble work with one format. Whereas it requests its alternative by depending on your software. It became familiar in most situations. We are the best Australian Design & Drafting Services company to provide excellent CAD conversions for IGES and STEP file to native file format. Contact Us  to get more information.

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