DESIGN OB体育ob体育官网 SERVICE

We at Australian Design and Drafting…" /> DESIGN OB体育ob体育官网 SERVICE

We at Australian Design and Drafting Services, possess the relevant resources…" /> DESIGN OB体育ob体育官网 SERVICE

We at Australian Design and Drafting Services, possess the relevant resources…" />

design and drafting services

WHAT IS OB体育ob体育官网 STANDARDS

WHAT ARE OB体育ob体育官网 STANDARDS

OB体育ob体育官网 STANDARDS

There are a lot of industries, schools, and companies that establish standards using guidelines and specifying drawing requirements, appearance, techniques, operating procedures, and record-keeping methods.

We, as the best Australian Standards provider company, defines the standard as a set of technical definitions and guidelines. It also includes how-to instructions for designers, manufacturers, and users. Additionally, the standards promote safety, reliability, efficiency and productivity in almost every industry that relies on engineered components or equipment. The standards can be as short as a few paragraphs or hundreds of pages long. Additionally, the experts write them with knowledge and expertise in a particular field that sits on many committees. The Australian Drafting Standards is one or more governmental bodies that adapt and have the force of law.

The Drafting Standard is considered voluntary because they serve as guidelines. The standards become mandatory when a business contract or regulations incorporate them. It’s crucial for  engineering  communication as they use a common language, defining quality and establishing safety criteria.

The costs are lower, and the training is simplified, whereas the procedures are standardized. Interchangeability is a critical reason for standardization. It’s a part manufactured in one location that fits with a mating part manufactured in another location.

The Drawing standards apply primarily used in settings and procedures, including:

CADD file storage, file templates, and other files contain standard file settings and objects for use in new files. Additionally, it covers Units of layout, borders and title, symbols, layers, text, table, dimension, and other drafting styles and plotting.

The company or school drawing standards follow appropriate national industry standards. It varies in content, where the most crucial aspect is used in standards and used by all design and drafting personnel. They follow drawing standards, where drawings are consistent and become more productive.

Australian Drafting Standards

We are an excellent professional  engineering  organization for mechanical engineering that use standards Australia publishes. The documents sponsor technical conferences and educational programs, including professional development courses. We are an accredited standard developing organization that meets the requirements of various codes. Along with this, our standard publishes numerous disciplines. Our drafting standards mainly focus on specific areas of  engineering  drawing related to practices received through designation.

ISO Drafting Standards

The ISO is an international organization that includes members from 163 countries. Australia is a member of it. The ISO is an extensive list of drafting standards providers with related documents. It covers General Tolerances, ISO 2768 standard, details specific ISO dimensioning and other tolerancing practices. According to Australian standards, this standard is mainly used when preparing a metric drawing. The ISO controls typically measured tolerancing, including a general note of states covering the ISO 2768 class for available tolerances. The ISO 2768-m is placed on the drawing. For more information or to order standards, look at  www.iso.org.

CADD Skill Standards

The CADD ( Computer-Aided Drafting and Design  )skill standards help develop and cooperate with the National occupational skill standards. It summarizes CADD occupation skills generic with all CADD disciplines, software, and entry-level.

AS 1100

Taking about AS 1100, It’s an Australian Standard for technical drawing that includes mechanical and architectural designs. AS 1100 standard drawings support attributes that are universal around Australia. The drafting standard publishes them and helps till the last stage.

The standard consists of six parts,

  • Part 101: General principles (1992)
  • Part 201: Mechanical engineering drawing (1992)
  • Part 301: Architectural drawing (2008)
  • Part 401: Engineering survey and engineering survey design drawing (1984)
  • Part 501: Structural engineering drawing (2002)

You cannot view these without purchasing a licence first.

Acronyms and Abbreviations in Engineering

A

A – Ampere
A/C – Air Conditioning
A/H – After Hours
AB – As-Built
ABBR – Abbreviation
ABS – Absolute
ADD – Addendum
AEC – Architecture, Engineering, and Construction
AF – Across Flats
AFL – Above Floor Level
AFL – Above Finished Level
AG – Agricultural pipe drain
AGL – Above Ground Level
AHD – Australian Height Datum
AHU – Air Handler Unit
APPROX – Approximately or Approximate
ARRGT – Arrangement
AS – Australian Standard
ASCII – American Standard Code for Information Interchange
ASSD – Assumed Datum
ASSY – Assembly
ATF – Along Top Flange
AUTO – Automatic
AUX – Auxillary
AVG – Average

B

B – Basin or Bottom
BLDG – Building
BNS – Business Network Services
BOT – Bottom
BQ – Bendable Quality
BRG – Bearing
BRS – Brass
BSP – British Standard Pipe
BT – Bath Tub
BT – Boundary Trap
BTM – Bottom
BW – Both Ways

C

C – C shaped steel purlin
C/C – Cross Centres
CAD – Computer-Aided Design.
Less commonly use is Computer Assisted Drafting.
CAM – Computer Aided Manufacture
CAP – Capacity
CBORE – Counterbore
CCTV – Closed Circuit Television
CFW – Continuous Fillet Weld
CHAM – Chamfer
CHCL – Channel
CH HD – Cheese Head
CHS – Circular Hollow Section
CI – Cast Iron
CIRC – Circumference or Circle
C.J. OR CJ – Control Joint (or Construction Joint)
CL – Center Line
CLG – Control Joint
CLR – Clearance
CMU – Cement Masonry Unit
CNC – Computer Numerical Control
CNR – Corner
CNJ – Construction Joint
COEF – Coefficient
COL – Column
COMMS – Communications
CONC – Concentric
CONN – Connection
CONT – Continuous
CP – Chrome Plated
C REC HD – Cross-Recess Head
CRS – Colled Rolled Steel
CTRS – Centres
CS – Cleaners Sink
CS – Cast Steel
CKS – Countersink
CSK HD – Countersunk Head
CT – Controller
CTR – Contour
CTR(S) – Centre/S
CTRL – Control
CTRS – Centers
CU – Dental Cuspidor
CUP HD – Cup Head
CVR – Cover
CYL – Cylinder
°C – Degrees Celsius

D

DAR – Dressed All Round
DD – Design Drawing
DED – Dedendum
DET – Detail
DIA – Diameter
DIAG – Diagram
DIAG – Diagonal
DICL – Ductile Iron Cement Lined (pipe)
DIST – Distance
DIM – Dimension
DN – Diameter Nominal
DP – Down Pipe
DP – Diametral Pitch
DR – Dryer
DRG – Drawing
DW – Dishwasher
OB体育ob体育官网 – Drawing
OB体育ob体育官网(S) – Drawing/S

E

E – Modulus of Elasticity
EA – Equal Angle (steel)
EF – Each Face
E.J. or EJ – Expansion Joint
EL – Elevated Level
EL – Elevation
ELEC – Electrical
ELEV – Elevation
EQ – Equal
EQUIP – Equipment
EQUIV – Equivalent
EW – Each Way
EWB – Electric Water Boiler
EWC – Electric Water Cooler
EXT – External

F

FB – Footing Beam
F’c – Characteristic Concrete Strength
FCU – Fan Coil Unit
FFL – Finished Floor Level
FHR – Fire Hose Reel
FIQ – Figure
FILL HD – Fillister Head
FL – Floor Level
FL – Flat or Flat Plate
FLG – Flange
FOC – Fibre Optic Cable
FS – Far Side
FSBL – Full Strength Butt Weld
FTG – Footing
FTP – Fibre Termination Panel (fibre optical cable)
FW – Fillet Weld
FWF – From Web Face (steel)

G

GA – General Arrangement
GALV – Galvanized
GCI – Galvanized corrugated iron.
GD – Grid
GI – Galvanized Iron
GIP – Galvanized Iron Pipe
GIS – Graphic Information System
GPO – General Purpose Outlet
GR – Grade
GRF – Geometric Reference Frame
GSM – Global System of Moblie or “Groupe Speciale Mobile” in French

H

H – Prewash Hose Reel
HD – Head
HEX HD – Hexagon Head
HEX SOC HD – Hexagon Socket Head
HOR – Horizontal
HORIZ – Horizontal
HP – High Pressure
HRA – Rockwell Hardness A
HRB – Rockwell Hardness B
HRC – Rockwell Hardness C
HS – High Strength
HT – Height
HTS – High-Tensile Steel
HV – Diamond Pyramid Hardness Number (Vickers)
HWB – Hair Wash Basin

I

I – Moment of Inertia
ID – Inside Diameter
IE – Invert Elevation
I.J. or IJ – Isolation Joint
IL – Invert Level
INT – Internal
IO – Inspection Opening
IP – Intersection Point
ISO – International Standard Organisation

J

JIS – Japanese Industry Standard
JT – Joint
JUNC – Junction

K

kHz – Kilohertz
K.J. or KJ – Key Joint
KS – Kitchen Sink
KWh – Kilo Watt Hour (metre)

L

L – Steel Angle
LAN – Local Area Network
LG – Length
LGX – Line Group Cross (Connector, fibre optical cable)
LH – Left Hand
LMC – Least Material Condition
LONG – Longitudinal
LPG – Liquid Petroleum Gas
LT – Laundry Trough

M

m – Metres (English) or Meters
MATL – Material
MAX – Maximum
M/C – Machine
MDF – Main Distribution Frame (Telecommunications)
MFR – Manufacturer
MHz – Megahertz
Mickey Mouse – A toy project, of very low quality.
MI – Malleable Iron
MIN – Minimum
MISC – Miscellaneous
M.J. or MJ – Movement Joint
mm – Millimetres
MMC – Maximum Material Condition
MOD – Modification
MS – Mild Steel
MTG – Mounting
MUSH HD – Mushroom Head

N

NC – Normally Closed
NEG – Negative
NET – Network
No. – Number
NOM – Nominal
NS – Near Side
NS – Nominal Size
N.S.O.P. – Not Shown On Plan
NTS – Not To Scale
NZS – New Zealand Standard

O

OA or O/A – Overall
OCT – Octagon
OD – Outside Diameter
OPT – Optional

P

P – Pipe
PA – Pressure Angle
PAR – Parallel
PATT – Pattern
PCD – Pitch Circle Diameter
PFC – Parallel Flange Channel
PL – Plate
PL – Pipeline
POS – Positive
POSN – Position
PREFAB – Prefabricated
PT – Pressure Tapping
PT – Part
PVC – Poly Vinyl Chloride
uPVC – UV Stabilized Poly Vinyl Chloride

Q

QTY – Quantity

R

R – Radius
Ra – Roughness Value
RAD – Radius or radial
RD – Round
REF – Reference
RECT – Rectangular
REINF – Reinforcement
REQ’D or REQD – Required
REV – Revision
RH – Right Hand
RHS – Rectangular Hollow Section (rarely Rolled Holled Section)
RL – Reduced Level or Relative Level
RO – Reverse Osmosis (water treatment)
RSA – Rolled Steel Angle
RSC – Rolled Steel Channel
RSD CSK HD – Raised Countersunk Head
RSJ – Rolled Steel Joist

S

S – Snug fit or tightened (bolts)
S – Sink
SAN – Sanitary
SDU – Sanitary Disposal Unit
SECT – Section
SF – Strip Footing
SF – Spot Face
SFL – Structural Finished Level
SH – Sheet
SHR – Shower
SHS – Square Hollow Section
SIM – Similar
SK – Sketch
SL – Structural Level
SPT – Spigot
SQ – Square
SS or S/S – Stainless Steel
SSL – Structural Slab Level
ST – Steel
STD – Standard
SW – Switch

T

T – Top
TB – Tie Beam
TB – Fully tensioned, bearing type (bolts)
TEMP – Temperature
TF – Fully tensioned, friction type (bolts)
TFC – Taper Flange Channel
THD – Thread
THK – Thick
TO or T.O. or T.OFF – Top Off
TOL – Tolerance
TP – Tangent Point
TP – True Position
TP – True Profile
TR – Laundry Trough
TUN – Tundish
TYP – Typical

U

U/S – Under Side
UA – Unequal Angle (steel)
UB – Universal Beam (steel)
UC – Universal Column (steel)
UCUT – Undercut
UNO – Unless Noted Otherwise (UON is prefered)
UON – Unless Otherwise Noted
uPVC – Unplasticized Polyvinyl Chloride
UR – Urinal

V

VER – Vertical
VERT – Vertical
VOL – Volume

W

WAN – Wide Area Network
WB – Welded Beam (steel)
WC – Welded Column (steel)
WC – Water Closet (toilet).
Where the poo and wee goes.
WC(P) – Water Closet With ‘P’ Trap
WC(S) – Water Closet With ‘S’ Trap
WD – Working Drawing
WM – Washing Machine
WP – Water Proof or Work Point
WI – Wrought Iron

X

X – By. Example, “N12 x 1200 long” also means “N12 by 1200 long”.

Y

YP – Yield Point

Z

Z – Zulu (Greenwich Mean Time)
Z – Z shaped steel purlin
Z – Modulus of Section

Other Characters

°C – Degrees Celsius
Ø – Diameter
# – Number
/tb – Fully tensioned, bearing type (bolts)
/tf – Fully tensioned, friction type (bolts)
/s – Snug fit or tightened (b

Welding Symbols Chart

Standards-Symbols-for-Welding-Bracing-and-Nondestructive-Examination Standards-Symbols-for-Welding-Bracing-and-Nondestructive-Examination-

Australian Design & Drafting Services provide excellent service for CAD Design and  Drafting.  Contact Us  for more info.

 

drawing for patent application

Intellectual Property Rights and Patent Application

Intellectual Property Rights

The success of a company often relies on the integrity of its employees. Products are normally the result of years of research, engineering, and development. This is referred to as the intellectual property of the company. Protection of intellectual property can be critical to the success of the company in a competitive industrial economy. This is why it is very important for employees to help protect design ideas and trade secrets. Many companies manufacture their products in strict, secure, and secret environments. You will often find proprietary notes on drawings that inform employees and communicate to the outside world that the information contained in the drawing is the property of the company and is not for use by others.

Software Piracy

  Software piracy is the unauthorized copying of software. Most software licenses support use at one computer site or by one user at any time. When you buy software, you become a licensed user. You do not own the software. You are allowed to make copies of the program for backup purposes, but it is against the law to give copies to colleagues and friends. Software companies spend a lot of money creating software programs for your professional and personal applications. Each new release usually provides you with improved features and more efficient use. When you use software illegally, you hurt everyone by forcing software companies to charge more for their products. Ethically and professionally, use software legally and report illegal use when observed.

COPYRIGHTS

A copyright is the legal rights given to authors of original works of authorship . The Australian Constitution establishes copyright and patent law and empowers the federal government to promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries . Copyrights control exclusively the reproduction and distribution of the work by others. In Australia, published or unpublished works that are typically copyrightable include:

  • Literary works, including computer programs and
  • Musical works, including any accompanying
  • Dramatic works, including any accompanying
  • Pantomimes and choreographic
  • Pictorial, graphic, and sculptural
  • Motion pictures and other audiovisual
  • Sound
  • Architectural works and certain other intellectual

Copyright protection exists from the time the work is created in fixed form. The fixed form may not be directly observable; it can be communicated with the aid of a machine or device. The copyright in the work of authorship immediately becomes the property of the author who created the work. Copyright is secured automatically when the work is created, and the work is created when it is fixed in a copy or phono- recorded for the first time. Copies are material objects from which the work can be read or visually perceived directly or with the aid of a machine or device. A copyright notice can be placed on visually perceptible copies. The copyright notice should have the word Copyright , the abbreviation Copr. , or the symbol © (or ® for phonorecords of sound recordings); the year of first publication; and the name of the owner of the copyright.

Patents

A patent for an invention is the grant of a property right to the inventor, issued by the IP AUSTRALIA . The term of a new patent is 20 years from the date on which the application for the patent was filed in Australia or, in special cases, from the date an earlier related application was filed, subject to the payment of maintenance fees. The IP AUSTRALIA patent grants are effective only within Australia. The patent law states, in part, that any person who "invents or discovers any new and useful process, the machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof, may obtain a patent," subject to the conditions and requirements of the law.

The patent law specifies that the subject matter must be "useful." The term useful refers to the condition that the subject matter has a useful purpose and must operate. You cannot patent laws of nature, physical phenomena, and abstract ideas. A complete description of the actual machine or other subject-matter is required to obtain a patent.

Application for a Patent

  The IP AUSTRALIA offers standard and innovation patent applications. A standard patent application is for the full patent, which lasts 20 years. The innovation patent application is for a temporary patent that lasts for one year.

Standard Application for a Patent

According to the IP AUSTRALIA, a standard application for a patent is made to the assistant commissioner for patents and includes:

  1. a written document that has a specification and an oath or declaration,
  2. a drawing in those cases in which a drawing is necessary, and
  3. the filing fee.

All application papers must be in the English language, or a translation into the English language is required. All application papers must be legibly written on only one side by either a typewriter or mechanical printer in a permanent dark ink or its equivalent in portrait orientation on flexible, strong, smooth, nonshiny, durable, white paper. Present the papers in a form having sufficient clarity and contrast between the paper and the writing to permit electronic reproduction. The application papers must all be the same size, either 21.0 cm by 29.7 cm (DIN size A4) or 21.6 cm by 27.9 cm (81¤2 3 11 in.). Application documents must have a top margin of at least 2.0 cm (3⁄4 in.), a left-side margin of at least 2.5 cm (1 in.), a right- side margin of at least 2.0 cm (3⁄4 in.), and a bottom margin of at least 2.0 cm (3⁄4 in.), with no holes made in the submit- ted papers. It is also required that the spacing on all papers be 11¤2 or double spaced, and the application papers must be numbered consecutively, centrally located above or below the text, starting with page 1. All required parts of the application must be complete before sending the application, and it is best to send all of the elements together. The IP AUSTRALIA numbers all applications received in serial order and the applicant will be informed of the application serial number and filing date by a filing receipt.

Innovation Application for a Patent

If you want protection for an invention with a short market life that might be superseded by newer innovations, such as computer-based inventions, an innovation patent is worth considering.

An innovation patent lasts up to eight years and is designed to protect inventions that do not meet the inventive threshold required for standard patents. It is a relatively quick and inexpensive way to obtain protection for your new device, substance, method or process.

The innovation patent requires an innovative step rather than an inventive step. An innovative step exists when the invention is different from what is known before, and the difference makes a substantial contribution to the working of the invention. The innovation patent protects an incremental advance on existing technology rather than being a groundbreaking invention.

An innovation patent is usually granted within a month of filing the complete application. This is because there is no examination before it is granted.

An innovation patent is only legally enforceable if it has been examined by us and found to meet the requirements of the  Patents Act 1990 , and has been certified. Examination of an innovation patent will only occur if requested by the patentee, a third party or if the Commissioner of Patents decides to examine the patent. The patentee will not be required to pay for examination until it is requested.

Phase-out of the innovation patent

The Australian Government has begun the process of phasing out the innovation patent with the passing of legislative amendments. This means:

  • The last day you can file a new innovation patent will be 25 August 2021.
  • Existing innovation patents that were filed on or before 25 August 2021 will continue in force until their expiry. This will ensure current rights holders are not disadvantaged.

The Government remains committed to dedicated support services to help small and medium enterprises (SMEs) navigate the intellectual property (IP) system. Australian SMEs will receive further dedicated support, with an SME case management service, the SME fast track service, a dedicated outreach program and online portal, to be launched as the innovation patent is phased out over the next 18 months.

The quick guide to innovation versus standard patents

Innovation patent Standard patent
Your invention must: Be new, useful and involve an  innovative  step. Be new, useful and involve an  inventive  step.
The application should include: A title, description, up to five claims, drawings (if applicable), an abstract and forms. A title, description, any number of claims, drawings (if applicable), an abstract and forms.
A patent is granted if: The application satisfies formality requirements (note: a 'granted' innovation patent cannot be enforced unless examined). The application is examined and found to satisfy the relevant requirements of the  Patents Act 1990 .
Examination: Optional. The examination can be requested by you or anyone else. Mandatory. The relevant requirements of the  Patents Act 1990  must be met before a patent is granted. Can only be requested by the applicant.
Certification: Is given if the innovation patent complies with the relevant requirements of the  Patents Act 1990 in the examination. Only after certification can the patent be enforced. N/A
Publication in the  Australian Official Journal of Patents : At grant and again at certification. Eighteen months from earliest priority date and again at acceptance.
Protection period: Up to eight years if annual fees are paid. Up to 20 years if annual fees are paid (or up to 25 years for pharmaceuticals).
How long does the process take? Approximately one month for the grant. Six months for examination if you make a request. Six months to several years depending on circumstances.

Patent Drawings

PATENT DRAWINGS REQUIREMENT

There is no requirement for a specific number of views. However, you must provide sufficient views to fully display your design, which usually requires a number of views.
We prefer traditional views (front, side and top) but will also accept perspective or isometric views. (See image).

All views must show exactly the same design. This particularly applies to colour, as colour is usually a visual feature of the design.

 

Key points for drawings

Drawings should:

  • be accurately drawn, not sketches , with well-defined line-work
  • only show the design in question and no descriptive wording or dimensions. However, labelling of views such as 'perspective view' or 'rear views' is acceptable
  • on A4 size paper if lodged by post
  • use broken or dashed lines when highlighting:
    • elements of the product other than those bearing the visual features of the design
    • parts of the design that are referred to in the statement of newness and distinctiveness
    • boundaries, such as a pattern applied to part of a surface, stitching and perforations
    • features that establish an environmental context.

Shading and cross-hatching can be used to show a visual feature of the design.

Key points for photographs or digital images

Photographs or digital images should:

  • be clear originals
  • show the product against a plain contrasting background and avoid matter not relevant to the design
  • be A4 or mounted on A4 white paper if lodged by post.

Other details

If it's a multiple design application, then each design should be clearly indicated, with each design shown on a separate sheet.

Complex products

Sometimes a design is applied to a part of a complex product, and that part can be readily assembled and disassembled from that product. If the component part qualifies as a product, then broader protection may be gained by defining this as a stand-alone part.

TRADEMARKS

According to the IP AUSTRALIA publication Basic Facts About Registering a Trademark , a trademark is a word, phrase, symbol or design, or combination of words, phrases, symbols, or designs that identifies and distinguishes the source of the goods or services of one party from those of others. A service mark is the same as a trademark except that it identifies and distinguishes the source of a service rather than a product. Normally, a mark for goods appears on the product or on its packaging, whereas a service mark appears in advertising for services. A trademark is different from a copyright or a patent. As previously explained, a copyright protects an original artistic or literary work, and a patent protects an invention.

Trademark rights start from the actual use of the mark or the filing of a proper application to register a mark in the AUSTRALIA stating that the applicant has a genuine intention to use the mark in commerce regulated by the AUSTRALIA. Federal registration is not required to establish rights in a mark, nor is it required to begin use of a mark. However, federal registration can secure benefits beyond the rights acquired by just using a mark. For example, the owner of a federal registration is presumed to be the owner of the mark for the goods and services specified in the registration and to be entitled to use the mark nationwide. Generally, the first party who either uses a mark in commerce or files an application in the AUSTRALIA has the ultimate right to register that mark. The authority of the AUSTRALIA is limited to determining the right to register. The right to use a mark can be more complicated to determine, particularly when two parties have begun use of the same or similar marks without knowledge of one another and neither has a federal registration. Only a court can make a decision about the right to use. Federal registration can provide significant advantages to a party involved in a court proceeding. The AUSTRALIA cannot provide advice concerning rights in a mark. Only a private attorney can provide such advice.

Trademark rights can last indefinitely if the owner continues to use the mark to identify its goods or services. The term of federal trademark registration is ten years, with ten-year renewal terms. However, between the fifth and sixth year after the date of initial registration, the registrant must file an official paper giving certain information to keep the registration alive. The registration is cancelled if this is not done. Please confirm specific trademark details and requirements with the AUSTRALIA.

engineering drawing history

WHAT IS THE HISTORY OF ENGINEERING DRAWING

Individuals with talent, wisdom, vision, and innovative ideas have influenced the history of engineering drawing. Major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, and transport also greatly influenced the evolution of engineering drawing and had an overpowering effect on socioeconomic and cultural conditions between the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Recently and more rapidly, computers have become a driving force in the way people create engineering drawings.

Early Drawing Practices

hISTORY OF ENGINEERING DRAWINGS 1 prehistoric humans created images on cave walls and rocks as a form of communication for hunting and gathering societies, to provide ritual or spiritual meaning, and for decoration.

Prehistoric drawings and paintings, known as pictograms, and carvings, known as petroglyphs, show a variety of animals and human shapes. Pictograms and petroglyphs are not engineering drawings , but they do represent early graphic forms of communication. For thousands of years, designers of ancient structures and machines used sketches, drawings, and documents to represent inventions and architecture and help design and distribute information to workers. However, activities such as farming, craft making, and toolmaking, and construction generally followed established standards of the time without the use of formal drawings as a guide. Production was more like a form of art than engineering, and each item was unique.
Early engineering drawings representing machines and buildings appear in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. These drawings were generally in the form of pictorial sketches with written descriptions that helped workers understand the intent of the drawings for fabrication or building. Early engineering drawings served as a reference for craft workers to construct a building or manufacture a product. Craft workers viewed the drawings and written descriptions and made interpretations based on their own experience and knowledge of current standard practices. Specific dimensions were not necessary, because each building or machine was different. Early engineering drawings were also an art form used during presentations to the persons who requested the designs.

Engineering Drawing Pioneers

hISTORY OF ENGINEERING DRAWINGS 2 Most early creators of engineering drawing s were artists and inventors. Some of the best-known early engineering drawings are the work of Italian Leonardo da Vinci. Leonardo is well known for his art, such as The Last Supper in 1498 and the Mona Lisa in 1507. He was also an inventor who designed machines such as the glider shown in Figure and military equipment such as the giant crossbow. Leonardo’s drawings were those of an artist and were not in the form of engineering drawings. Leonardo’s drawings were pictorial and generally without dimensions. No multiview drawings of Leonardo’s designs are known to exist. Multiview drawings are 2-D drawings of objects organized in views.
Skilled tradespeople worked from the pictorial sketches and representations to construct models of many of Leonardo’s designs. Each machine or device was unique, and parts were not interchangeable. Leonardo was also an early mapmaker. In 1502, Leonardo created a map containing the town plan of Imola, Italy. Authorities commissioned Leonardo as the chief military engineer and architect because of this mapmaking. Arguably, this early work was more artistic than the beginning of engineering drawing, but this work holds a special place in history.
Approximately the same time as Leonardo da Vinci created his drawings, awareness developed that drawings require greater accuracy and dimensions. An early author of architecture and engineering was an Italian man, Leon Battista Alberti . Leon’s writing covered a wide range of subjects, from architecture to town planning and from engineering to the philosophy of beauty. In 1435 and 1436, Leon also wrote two works that explored the need to incorporate more geometry in drawings. Leon also proposed drawings with multiple views rather than the commonly used pictorial drawings.
The importance of using multiview two-dimension drawings was also influenced by the development of descriptive geometry in the work of French philosopher and mathematician René Descartes (1596–1650) and the work of Frenchman Gaspard Monge (1746–1818). René was the inventor of the Cartesian coordinate system, and he founded analytic geometry, the link between algebra and geometry. The Cartesian coordinate system uses numerical coordinates to locate points in space according to distances measured in the same unit of length from three intersecting axes. The Cartesian coordinate system is the basis for establishing points when using CADD today.
hISTORY OF ENGINEERING DRAWINGS 3 Gaspard Monge created a large-scale plan of a town using his own methods of observation and instruments that he designed. As a result, authorities commissioned Gaspard as a drafter and pupil in the practical school of the military institution. Given a project to design a proposed fortress, Gaspard used his geometrical method to create the design quickly. Continuing his research, Gaspard arrived at a graphic method of the application of geometry to construction, now called descriptive geometry. Descriptive geometry is the system of graphic geometry that uses plane projections to describe and analyze their properties for engineering drafting applications.

 

 

 

 

 

hISTORY OF ENGINEERING DRAWINGS 5 Many early drafters had degrees in engineering and began to realize the importance of creating accurate and detailed engineering drawings. However, much of the drafting was in the form of line drawings, with watercolour paints used to high-light the drawings as shown in the architectural elevation of a home. Drawing continued to be basic line drawings with little dimensioning practice. An example is the early architectural floor plans shown in Figure used to construct a home. Craft workers also followed architectural details such as the gable design shown in Figure. There were few if any dimensions and standards, so each building was similar but different. This practice lasted until the early part of the twentieth century.

 

 

 

hISTORY OF ENGINEERING DRAWINGS 4 Into the late 1800s and early 1900s, inventors, engineers, and builders worked on each product on a one-of-a-kind basis. Manufactures produced parts from hand sketches or hand drawings on blackboards. American engineer and inventor Coleman Sellers, in the manufacture of fire engines, had blackboards with full-size drawings of parts. Blacksmiths formed parts and compared them to the shapes on the blackboards. Coleman Sellers son, George Sellers, recalls lying on his belly using his arms as a radius for curves as his father stood over him direct-ing changes in the sketches until the drawings were satisfactory. Most designs used through the 1800s began as a hand sketches of the objects to be built. Workers then converted the sketches into wooden models from which patterns were constructed. Some companies followed this practice well into the twentieth century. An example is Henry Ford and his famous blackboards. What was new, though, was that the blackboards were also the Henry Ford drafting tables. Henry would sketch cars and parts three-dimensionally and have pattern makers construct full-size wooden models.

 

 

 

The Influence of Interchangeability

The Industrial Revolution was a period from the eighteenth to nineteenth centuries when major changes took place in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, and transport. The need for interchangeability in manufactured products became important during the Industrial Revolution. Interchangeability refers to parts manufactured identically within given tolerances. interchangeable parts are produced to specifications that make sure they are so nearly identical that they fit into any product for which they are designed. One part can replace another of the same part without custom fitting. Interchangeability allows easy assembly of new products and easier repair of exist- ing products while minimizing the time and skill required for assembly and repair.

The application of interchangeability started with the firearms industry. Before the eighteenth century, gunsmiths made guns one at a time, and each gun was unique. If one component of a firearm needed to be replaced, the entire weapon was sent back to the gunsmith for custom repairs or the firearm was discarded. The idea of replacing these methods with a system of interchangeable manufacture gradually developed during the eighteenth century. Interchangeability was not realized except in special examples until the development of the micrometre in the late 1800s; even then, interchangeability was not easy to achieve. Without the concept of interchangeability, accurate drawings were not necessary. After these advances, engineering drawing began to evolve more rapidly in the nineteenth century.

Drafting Practices and Equipment

Early engineering drawings were often works of art and commonly made with ink. Drafters initially drew using a pencil, T-square, triangles, scales, irregular (French) curves, and drawing instruments such as compasses and dividers. Drafting textbooks as late as the fourth edition of this textbook spent pages describing how to sharpen, hold, and properly use pencils to draw quality uniform lines. Drafters often traced original pencil drawings onto cloth using pen and ink. Drafters always paid skilled attention to lettering quality on drawings. Engineering drafters would use a specific lettering style referred to as vertical uppercase Gothic. Architectural drafters used a more artistic style of lettering that defined their drawings as uniquely related to their discipline. Over the years, various templates and other devices were introduced that allowed drafters to produce consistent quality lettering, although most professional drafters preferred to make quality freehand lettering.

hISTORY OF ENGINEERING DRAWINGS 6 Drafters initially created drawings by hand on a drafting table referred to as aboard. An advance in drafting occurred with the introduction of the drafting machine, which replaced the T-square, triangles, scales and protractor for creating drawings. The drafting machine mounts to the table or board and has scales attached to an adjustable head that rotates for drawing angles. When locked in a zero position, the scales allow drawing horizontal and vertical lines and perpendicular lines at any angle orientation. There are arm and track drafting machines. The arm machine has arms attached to a mounting bracket at the top of the table. The arms control the movement of the head. The track machine has a traversing track that mounts to the table and a vertical track that moves along the horizontal track. The machine head traverses vertically on the track as shown in Figure.

 

Many architectural drafters used a device called a parallel bar, is a long horizontal drafting edge attached to each side of the table that moves up and down on the table. The parallel bar allows the drafter to draw horizontal lines, and triangles are used on the bar to draw angled lines. During the decades after World War II, drafting equipment suppliers introduced a variety of materials to improve the productivity of the drafting process.

Drawing Reproduction

About the same time as interchangeability became important and engineering drawings were evolving, preserving, and duplicating original drawings became important. There was a need to reproduce drawings easily for distribution to manufacturers or builders, so the blueprint process developed. A blueprint is a contact chemical-printing process of a drawing or other image copied on paper with white lines on a blue background. As drawing reproduction evolved, a diazo process that created blue line copies with a white background replaced the blueprint process. Until recently, all drawing reproductions were commonly referred to as blueprints. Today, offices use printers, plotters, and engineering copiers that use xerography to reproduce CADD drawings. The generic term print has replaced the term blueprint.

Computer-Aided Design and Drafting

During the 1980s and 1990s, CADD rapidly became a technology to take seriously. Companies began considering the power of CADD as computer systems and CADD software developed capabilities and features that made them useful in producing professional drawings. Drafters who had used manual drafting for their entire careers had to face the challenge of converting their artistic skill into drawings created using a computer. This was a difficult challenge for many drafters. Soon schools began teaching drafting technology using CADD. This gave the traditional manual drafters an opportunity to learn the new technology and for new trainees to develop CADD knowledge and skills at the entry-level.

hISTORY OF ENGINEERING DRAWINGS 7 In the 1980s, schools started teaching CADD in their curricula by adding a few computers into the traditional manual drafting program. Eventually, half of the typical classroom was equipped with traditional drafting tables and the other half was CADD workstations, or the school would open a separate CADD lab to teach courses. This plan closely paralleled what was happening in the industry for those companies that were taking CADD seriously. By the 1990s, many schools and companies were starting to make the complete transition to CADD by replacing manual drafting tables with CADD workstations. Today, CADD accounts for almost all design and drafting. The figure shows a 3-D model of an aeroplane engine, which demonstrates the power of CADD for designing products.

 

 

 

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what is engineering Drawing

WHAT IS THE ENGINEERING DRAWING

Engineering drawing is a common language that describes the process of creating drawings for engineering and architectural application. The engineering drawings work the best and accept standards and format.

It offers an efficient way to communicate and use specific data with adding design intent. The Engineering drawings do not require work and interpret of others' drawings. It comes with decorative drawings along with using artistic paintings. Using a successful engineering drawing, the user can describe a specific item that the drawing viewer understands without misinterpretation.

One can talk about the term engineering drawing, known for its Drafting, mechanical drawing, mechanical Drafting, engineering drafting, technical Drafting and technical drawing. The Drafting comes with a different graphic language that uses lines, symbols, and other notes to describe objects for an industry like manufacturing or construction. There are technical disciplines that use Drafting, covering civil, architecture, electrical engineering, electronics, piping, manufacturing, and structural engineering.

The term mechanical drafting comes with alternate meanings. The manufacturing industry comes with mechanical Drafting, where the name is derived from mechanisms. The construction industry uses mechanical Drafting in terms of drafting heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. It comes with a mechanical portion of an architectural project.

Whereas if we talk about manual Drafting, it’s a term that describes traditional drafting practice, including pencil or ink onto a medium. It covers paper or polyester film, which supports drafting instruments and equipment. Computer-aided Drafting (CAD) has taken the place of manual Drafting, where the CAD uses computers for drafting. CAD also refers to computer-aided design when computers are used to design.

Engineering drawings add various concepts that cover instructions, engineering requirements, and proposals. It comes with multiple people and includes different individuals involved with a project. An engineering drawing comes with a complete set of engineering designs that offer data needed to manufacture an item or product. It includes machine parts, consumer products and many more structures.

ENGINEERING DRAWING

The drawing study covers medical instruments that completely describe all geometric features' location and size. Later, it identifies the characteristics of the part. It mainly uses the material along with manufacturing precision. Also, the medical instrument company uses the drawing to share the document design, which intends to be a part of manufacturing. Let’s say how difficult it can be to understand the engineering drawing.

 

ENGINEERING DRAWING AUSTRALIA

Actually, the engineering drawing comes with an architectural drawing that is mainly used for home re-modelling projects. The drawing uses one sheet in a set of communication with architectural style, size, and location with building features and taking care of the construction methods and materials.

The drawing offers sheets that communicate architectural style, the size and location of building features, and construction methods. The drawings are set to obtain to pay for construction, make permits and legally begin construction. It offers accurate cost estimates that bring impossible and impractical construction without engineering drawings.

Computers In Design and Drafting

The computers offer revolutionised business along with adding industry process. It covers design and drafting practices with ease. Computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) is a process that uses a computer with CADD software for design and drafting applications.Also, the software is a program that enables a computer to perform specific functions and accomplish a task. Talking CAD is the acronym for computer-aided design, referred to as computer-aided Drafting.

Computer-aided design and computer-aided Drafting offer specific aspects of the CADD process. It mainly uses CADD for the design and drafting process to get accurate and faster CAD design. Several industries mostly use engineering and architecture to get a better outcome. Most engineering industries and educational institutions use manual drafting practices that evolved to CADD.

Whereas CADD allows drafters and designers to produce accurate drawings with neat and matched industry standards. CADD makes architectural drawings with artistic flair lettering and line styles, including a matched appearance with the finest handwork available. In addition to this, CADD drawings come consistently from one person or company to the next. It supports enhancing the ability of designers and drafters, adding creativity to it. It uses new tools such as solid modelling, animation, and virtual reality.

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Engineering designs

WHAT IS THE ENGINEERING DESIGN APPLICATION

Engineering design and drawing offer a broad subject that includes many theories and practices. It has different forms of drawing at the lunch table as a basic sketch of a new product idea drawn on a napkin.

Additionally, the drawing comes in the form of a complex series of models for a new automotive design. It uses hundreds of formal drawings that require the construction of a skyscraper. One could learn the purpose and requirements and create meaningful engineering drawings by using this textbook to study engineering drawing and design. The engineering  design  applications offer an early explanation along with systematic problem-solving techniques.

We use specific engineering projects or general design along with drafting concepts. The engineering design application mainly uses post guides through a basic example of an engineering design process. It begins with an idea and a basic sketch that ends with manufacturing an actual product.

From an Idea to a Product

The engineering projects and design ideas establish or occur along with an informal setting. For instance, a hand-tool manufacturing company engineer uses a typically adjustable wrench to complete a common home-repair task.

They used the wrench, where the engineers discovered that it was difficult to access a confined location and remove a nut on a piece of equipment. The engineer additionally imagined how the company could manufacture, design, and market a new wrench. We use features that help in making the tool usable in cramped locations. The other day, the engineer and a colleague used the drafting department. The engineer mainly sketches the idea for the new wrench on a napkin by communicating the design to the drafter.

THE ENGINEERING DESIGN APPLICATION fig1.1

The sketch mostly shows the idea of taking the existing tool design that creates a whole new handle adding an ogee or S-shaped curve design. Additionally, the sketch communicates the concept that takes a current tool with creating a fresh hold of an S-shaped curve design.

 

 

 

 

THE ENGINEERING DESIGN APPLICATION fig1.2a

Later the same day, the drafter would offer the three-dimensional (3-D) solid model files using existing wrench design based on the computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) system.

 

 

 

THE ENGINEERING DESIGN APPLICATION fig1.2b

The user mainly uses drafter copies that revise the existing design based on the engineer's sketch. The drafter represents the engineer's new model, who is pleased with the results and requests of a rapid prototype. Rapid prototyping (RP) is a process that creates a physical and functional model from a computer-generated 3-D model. It uses an RP machine, known as a 3-D printer. The RP machines are available that build prototypes from various materials like paper and liquid polymer. The hand-tool company do not have an RP machine. Therefore, the drafter sends files of the design to a company specialising in RP. The engineer and drafter receive a prototype two days later.

 

THE ENGINEERING DESIGN APPLICATION fig1.3 The figure shows the prototype of the new wrench design. The design team tests the prototype in an application similar to what the engineer experienced at home. The prototype worked as expected.

 

 

 

 

THE ENGINEERING DESIGN APPLICATION fig1.4a By the next afternoon, the drafter completes the set of working drawings shown in Figure and sends the drawings to the manufacturing department to manufacture and assemble the new product. The manufacturing department needs lead time to design and make the forging dies required to reproduce the parts. Lead time is the time interval between the initiation and the completion of a production process. Forging is the process of shaping malleable metals by hammering or pressing between dies that duplicate the desired shape. The hand-tool company is small, so the drafter is also responsible for creating catalogue art and copy for marketing the product.

 

 

 

detail drawings Assembly Drawings and Parts List & Detail drawing of the new wrench body part

 

 

 

 

 

 

jaw part drawings Detail drawing of the new wrench JAW part.

 

 

 

 

 

gear part drawings Detail drawing of the new wrench GEAR part.

 

 

 

 

 

part drawings for pin Detail drawing of the new wrench PIN part.

 

 

 

 

 

THE ENGINEERING DESIGN APPLICATION fig1.6 Less than two months after the engineer had the initial idea, the first production run of new wrenches is ready to sell. The figure shows the finished product.

 

 

 

 

We have the best design team that tests the prototype in an application. It works similar to what the engineer experienced at home. The prototype worked as expected. The drafter supports along with completing the set of working drawings by the next day and sends the drawings to the manufacturing department. It helps to manufacture and assemble the new product. The manufacturing department needs lead time to design and make the forging dies required to reproduce the parts. The Lead time is the time interval between the initiation and the completion of a production process. It helps in the process of shaping malleable metals that presses between dies and duplicate the desired shape. Additionally, the hand-tool company is relatively small. It helps to draft for creating catalogue art and add copy for the product marketing.

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2D Drawing

WHAT TO CHOOSE 2D DRAWING OR 3D MODEL PLATFORM FOR CAD DESIGNING

There has been a new trend in CAD designing world for a 3D modelling for complex design and CAD design platform has evolved so much that 2D drawings become the by-product of 3D modelling.

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2D drawings are easy to generate but engineers prefer 3D models for complex applications and design generation. When both are easily achievable, they also are a choice of avoiding catastrophe in the longer run. It basically demands foresight to decide and avail a smooth function of fabrication part of the engineering project and business applications on later stages. Engineering documentation is at the heart of the long, storied history of technical draftsmanship. The objective back then is no different from today's challenge: represent an engineering design in the most accurate and concise way possible. Distilling the 3D reality we live in onto sheets of paper involved a carefully considered system of dimensioning and orthographic projections. These days, they might be referred to as 2D Drawings (which is a redundant term if you think about it). The system worked then and it works now. Those who are well-trained in these classical methodologies have difficulty understanding why there should be anything else. Why fix what ain't broke?

To think that 2D drawing has been trashed out with the advent of  3D CAD modelling  is far from reality. 2D drafting still has a very prominent place amongst the industrial product designers, and they have their own reasons for it.

2D is the best option when you are facing tight deadlines and the designs are to be developed for a single component or a single part. Basic geometries are easy to generate in 2D CAD sketching tools and are quick. They are intriguing when the drawings do not need any functionalities of 3D and require less space. A designer of any skill sets can easily work with 2D CAD and nearly any desktop will support 2D drafting.

For a crystal clear usage, engineers still use 2D drafts for fabrication drawings , plans, elevation, sectional drawings and shop floor drawings for fabrication. In fact, it is quite surprising that approximately 30% of engineering design firms and design engineers still use paper to design the initial concept sketched and then resort to 2D CAD for digitization.

Despite these benefits, there are a few drawbacks of using 2D. When sectional views are generated in 2D, updating them is time-consuming and also prone to errors. Also, 2D CAD software does not have rendering capabilities. This means, it involves an additional step to export and convert designs into 3D models before rendering.

So for a fact, just to save time, you are doing two more steps, exporting and converting before any other action is being taken– literally two for one. It reduces productivity and lengthens the designing cycle. For these reasons, industry-wide shift to 3D modelling is witnessed among mechanical and industrial product design engineers.

In contrast, the classic engineering drawing is fraught with limitations:

  • Interpretation Issues: A properly executed drawing shouldn't be subject to misinterpretation, but that skill is starting to become something of a lost art. Unclear depictions can be problematic (i.e. which surface did that leader line touch?). More disturbingly, errors can easily escape detection. Sure, most of that can be mitigated with carefully defined GD&T, but that too seems to be a fading skill. PMI improves upon these limitations by clearly associating surfaces and endpoints and providing validation that such dimensions do indeed make logical sense.
  • Manual Inspection:  Drawings necessitate reinterpretation by humans on the other side of the manufacturing lifecycle. It's another way to introduce error: the botched inspection. PMI sets the stage for automated inspection, accelerating manufacturing processes while simultaneously improving quality.
  • Time is Money: This is where drawings go for the BRAINS... Simply put, in today's constantly accelerating demand to crank out the engineering in less time, drawings just take too long. Increased market pace demands more efficient processes. An engineer who's spent considerable time defining a model, shouldn't have to spend much longer documenting it. The days of modelling something then throwing it over a fence to lay it out are over. These two aspects of the design must occur simultaneously, and this ultimately is only possible with the model-based definition.

3D Models: Make a three-way profit

As business needs became bigger, design cycles were required to get shorter and engineering lead time needed to get easier and without errors; this is when more and more engineers started resorting to 3D CAD software. The advantage of using 3D CAD over 2D CAD is that it reduces the design cycle time to almost half and gives a competitive advantage to designers as well as fabricators by accommodating alterations, much fasters.

Another takeaway with 3D CAD is that it offers excellent workaround while generating rapid prototypes. And with additive manufacturing gaining momentum over traditional manufacturing practices, 3D CAD is the way to adapt to easily transform designs into tangible products.

Since additive manufacturing is a process that eliminates material cutting, it has a dramatic control over scrap produced. This is one among many reasons why this phenomenon has gained traction for every fabricator in any industry – be it industrial sheet metal tools, automotive, building products, furniture or any other that one can think of.

Such a paradigm shift makes it even more important than ever to adopt 3D CAD and drop 2D drafting process for saving material, directly targeting to increase their profits and connects the digital thread opportunity directly with the designs.

Other than these three major benefits, 3D CAD usually offers more functionality to the user. These functionalities encompass 3D arrays, special views, referencing and much more. But at times these are too many for generating basic part models like line-types, line-weights, and other form features are good to go. In such times, it feels that 2D drawings should be preferred instead of 3D.

Also because since 3D CAD is advanced, licensing is much expensive and renewing it each time the software company rolls-out new version, [not to mention it happens almost every year] it costs heavily to designers. Thus, it is much needed to weigh your needs of design requirements and analyze the cost you are paying for it.

By now, you must have realized that, on the contrary to popular belief, there will be times when you’ll find 2D CAD to be the need of the hour and not 3D models. While during the other times, you’ll find your designing world revolving in the three dimensions of 3D CAD models, whatever be your need – fabrication, design intent clarity or profits – to avoid catastrophe and binge working at the last moment. The hitch is that you select the one that addresses most of your needs since there isn’t any single CAD system that will address all your design and fabrication needs.

2D Drawing

How to Hire the Right Architect

When you make the decision to build a new home, there are a lot of things to consider:

  • Neighbourhood

  • Accessibility

  • Land or Area

  • Budget / Capital


No matter where you end up, perhaps the most important decision you make is that who will be the
architect . If you haven’t worked with one before, you may wonder whether your project really requires an architect, most especially if it will be your personal residence.

Hiring an architect is critical for any building project to be successful. The architect is the source of the outcome, and he or she will handle a number of duties. Among them, helping clients explore what appeals to them aesthetically and what they require functionally, coordinating teams of design, engineering and construction professionals and sorting through the maze of building codes and zoning requirements to ensure projects are built the way they were planned.

Some people thought they could design their dream home on their own. And in the end they will just find that it’s a big mistake..

The professional architect is the one who has the proper education, training, experience, and vision to guide us through the entire design and construction process;

  • help us define what we want to build,

  • help us get the most for our construction.

Should be a “Problem Solver”
That is what architects are trained to do, solving problems in creative ways. With their broad knowledge of design and construction, architects can show alternative options we might never think of on our own.

  • Professional interpreters of client’s dreams, visions, and objectives

  • Explorers of all possibilities

  • Studying and responding to the site and its environment

  • Home Design Translators that will exceed expectations

Should be a “Finance Specialist” (building construction)

An architect pays for his own way through the

  • lot selection,

  • design,

  • construction documents,

  • bidding and negotiation,

  • the construction phase of a custom residence project.

An architect’s input can save the owner’s money and/or add value to the project.

Because a well-conceived project can be built more efficiently and economically. Architects plan projects with us. As your ideas evolve, changes can be made on paper, much less expensively than when construction is going on. Though 3D Architectural Renderings also make it easier for the contractor to accurately price and build the project.

Energy-efficient buildings can save money on fuel bills down the road. An architect can design a building to maximize heating from the sun and let in natural light, thus reducing heating, cooling, and electric bills over time.

Can work with the budget and help us select the appropriate materials and workmanship at a fair price. Architects develop the drawings and specifications to help us get bids for construction that are based on our requirements.

Can help us choose materials and finishes that are durable as well as saving on frequent maintenance and replacement costs. Architects work to stay abreast of advances in roofing, brickwork, floor tiling, paint finishes, etc. Their familiarity with the full range of materials enables them to suggest the appropriate materials for the project.

Good design sells. A well-designed house has a higher resale value. A well-designed store draws customers. A well-designed work environment attracts employees and increases productivity.

Architects are like Machines = Easy Life

The building is a long process that is often messy and disruptive, particularly if you are living or working in the space under construction . They have an all the ideas that will make us contented on the design they offered. The architect looks out on our interests and they try to find ways to make that process go smoothly.

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AutoCAD 2016, AutoCAD’s Latest Release, Visual Accuracy

How to use Autocad New feature Visual Accuracy

The new release of AutoCAD 2016 features certain significant improvements. These improvements include a more comprehensive canvas, richer design context, and intelligent tools such as Smart Dimensioning, Coordination Model, Enhanced PDFs, and Stunning Visual Experience.

AutoCAD software tools are known worldwide for providing 2D and 3D design features, documentation and collaboration processes for any design task. Furthermore, the software tools enable designers to share their work with one another by using TrustedOB体育ob体育官网® technology.

The purpose of this article is to:

  • Look briefly at the new features present in the newest AutoCAD release,
  • Identify significant changes between the newest and previous software releases,
  • Determine the impact of Visual Accuracy and other major benefits which the newest release of AutoCAD provides.

What New Features are Present in the Autocad 2016 Newest Release?

  • With Smart Dimensioning, appropriate measurements are created automatically, based on the drawing context. Bypassing the cursor over a selected object, the designer gets a preview of the dimension before creating it. For example, by selecting and holding a cursor over the cross-section of a duct, modified inner and outer diameters can be previewed before they are created.
  • The Coordination Model makes it possible to attach and view Navisworks® and BIM 360 Glue models directly inside AutoCAD. This makes it possible to import architectural design data created by Navisworks or to import a building design project into AutoCAD. The ability to merge design data between AutoCAD and BIM models provides the framework for KBE (Knowledge-Based Engineering), and for maintaining concurrency and synergy between product design teams.
  • The Enhanced PDFs feature makes it possible to quickly create smarter, smaller and powerful PDF files which are text searchable.
  • The Visual Experience feature enables the engineer to see design details with certain visual enhancements such as Line Fading. True curves are used instead of line segments for image rendering. For example, a circle is created as a continuous curve rather than several straight line segments. Instead of performing several Undo operations, a Command preview enables the designer to see the results of a command before committing to it. Large selection sets are easier to copy or move.
  • The designer is able to customize his/her design environment and systems settings and to prevent unwanted changes from being made.

In What Areas Are There Significant Software Changes?

The following list highlights significant software changes between AutoCAD 2016 (newest release) and previous versions of AutoCAD.

In terms of User Interaction, AutoCAD 2016 provides:

  • The Help Find tool, Improved graphics, Command preview, and resizable viewports are improved in AutoCAD 2016 and AutoCAD 2015.
  • The Move/Copy feature has been boosted in AutoCAD 2016 over previous versions.

In terms of the Design Interface, AutoCAD 2016 provides:

  • Center of polygon object snap
  • High-fidelity lines and curves
  • Coordination model
  • Point cloud dynamic UCS (Unified Computing System) and geometry extraction

In terms of Documentation, AutoCAD 2016 provides:

  • Revision Cloud enhancements
  • Smart dimensioning
  • PDF enhancements and optimized file output
  • The searchable text and hyperlink support in exported PDFs
  • Simplified, powerful rendering
  • Overriding of Xref (External Reference File in a cloud system) layer properties

What Major Benefits does the Newest Release of Autocad Provide?

The previous section of this article mentioned significant software improvements between AutoCAD 2016 and previous versions. It may be informative to look more closely at what some of these software improvements mean.

Coordination Models enable design data from Navisworks and BIM360 models (NWC, NWD) to be attached directly into AutoCAD. This feature supports the collaborative and synergistic product development model available in BIM. This feature also supports KBE (Knowledge-Based Engineering) and Expert Systems, which is important for retaining in-house design expertise and knowledge.

Smart dimensioning speeds up design work, because many “Undo” commands can be avoided by using the Preview feature in the new software release. Instead of establishing a dimension for an object and undoing it in order to create a new dimension, the object can be selected with the cursor, previewed or “hovered over”, before establishing the dimension.

The “Snap to geometric centre” feature enables the designer to snap to the centre of closed regular or irregular polylines.

Improvements to the drawing canvas dramatically improve the visual accuracy seen on screen. Although the human visual system can interpret a series of jagged line segments as an integrated smooth curve, it is much better to represent smooth curves and arcs with true curves. Doing so creates graphic objects with true fidelity and visual acuity, and creates a much better viewing experience.

A number of preset rendering options have been introduced, such as “Coffee-Break Quality”. Image-based lighting has been introduced to improve visual rendering.

The “UI finder” utility makes it easy to find just about anything in AutoCAD’s UI, including entries on the application menu and the status bar.

PDF enhancements create smaller files (about half the size of previous PDFs). The PDFs are generated quicker, and they permit text search and selection, even with multibyte and Unicode characters. Furthermore, SHX fonts (which have the source text added as a comment) are supported. Hyperlinks are maintained, whether they are embedded URLs or links between drawing content.

The System Variable Monitor (Sysvar) protects the design engineer from having his established or preset environment from being altered. In a multi-tasking environment, it is likely that an impolite application may alter sysvar settings, but fail to reset them to their previous settings after the application has completed its tasks.

Conclusion

Although this article sounds as if it is focused on sales or marketing, its purpose is to keep the CAD engineer aware of improved software features (such as improved visual accuracy in AutoCAD 2016) which become available in new CAD software releases.

The CAD engineer works in a fast-paced environment in which technological progress should be expected. In order to stay current and not to become obsolete, it is necessary for the CAD engineer to be aware of improved capabilities in new software releases.

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CAD, Drafting, cad drafting,CAD software

CAD Drafting and Residential Design

Imagine being able to walk through your new home or office building, go into every room, try out different colors on the walls or make changes to the design – before it’s even built. It sounds pretty amazing, and it is. That is the world of CAD (Computer-Aided Design) drafting.

Not too long ago you would find the designer or architect bent over a drafting table using a pencil, ruler and eraser, slowly drafting every detail by hand. Today’s designers use sleek, super-fast computers and CAD software systems that can quickly and perfectly create, edit, then display finished projects in breathtaking 3-D computer renderings.

There are other software systems with similar acronyms, but they are essentially the same application with subtle differences in function. Two of these other systems, CADD (Computer-Aided Design and Drafting) and CAID (Computer-Aided Industrial Design) are the most commonly used.

From the minute you get up in the morning, almost everything you will see or touch or use during the day had its beginnings as a CAD drafting project on a computer somewhere. Your car and every part in it, your electronics, furniture, your home and office, even your deodorant jar and the packages your food comes in were more than likely drafted using CAD.

The History of CAD

Like most great inventions, CAD drafting had humble beginnings, but the potential was immediately apparent. Software companies and thousands of dedicated developers and programmers saw that potential and have worked tirelessly for over 30 years now to develop and bring CAD drafting programs to where they are today. The results have been no less than spectacular.

The initial developments that led to today’s CAD programs were first carried out in the early 1960’s and 1970’s in the aerospace and automotive industries. Both industries were independently developing the first CAD systems. Most people agree that the real breakout point was the development of SKETCHPAD at MIT in 1963. The main feature of SKETCHPAD was that it allowed the designer to work with the program by drawing on the monitor with a light pen. This was essentially the first GUI (Graphical User Interface) and is the most

The first programs were only available to large corporations in the automotive, aerospace and electronics industries. These were the only companies that could afford the expensive computers and computing power needed to do the calculations needed to run the programs. The leaders in developing these first programs were GM, Lockheed and Renault.

The first CAD programs in the 1970’s were only capable of creating 2D drawings similar to the hand-drafted drawings of the time. But even those first simple programs were changing the face of manufacturing and construction design. The programs quickly evolved over the years as computer processing speed and power and graphics capabilities increased. In the 1980’s the next major step toward modern CAD was achieved with the advent of the ability to do 3D solid modeling.

In 1981 two solid modeling packages were released- Romulus by (ShapeData) and Uni-Solid by (Unigraphics). In 1982 John Walker founded Autodesk which developed one of the most famous 2D CAD programs, AutoCAD. In the late 1980’s and early 1990’s the solid modeling kernels for rendering 3D designs were integrated into the new CAD programs for the first time. As computing prices came down, so did the potential and the promise of CAD drafting for smaller companies. This now made it possible for any company to afford a high-quality CAD design program. The 1990’s saw the release of some of the most popular mid-range packages. SolidWorks was released in 1995, SolidEdge was released in 1996, and IronCAD was released in 1998.
Different Types of CAD SystemsMost CAD computer workstations are Windows-based PCs with some running on Unix and a few on Linux machines. Usually no special hardware is needed except for a high-end OpenGL Graphics card for renderings. Also, more is always better when it comes to computing power. A machine with dual-processors and massive amounts of RAM is needed for maximum performance on complex projects.

CAD systems can be separated into three different types: 2D drafting systems like AutoCAD LT (also known as Autocad “Light”); 3D solid feature modelers like Architectural Desktop, Chief Architect, ArchiCAD, Alibre Design, VariCAD SolidWorks and SolidEdge; and high-end 3D hybrid systems like Pro/ENGINEER and NX (Unigraphics).

The human interface is usually a mouse but a trackball or pen and tablet can also be used. The model can be manipulated and viewed from different perspectives and angles. On some systems you can even use stereoscopic glasses for viewing in true 3D.Today there are many low-end 2D systems available and even a number of free and open source programs. All these programs provide an ease of design not possible with hand drafting on a traditional drawing sheet. For example, in 2D drafting a wall in a house would be drawn as 2 parallel lines spaced a certain distance apart, say, 6 inches. To insert a door into the wall, you would follow a process similar to manual drafting- you would first erase part of the wall, then draw in the lines representing a door. In 2D, each line is inserted manually into the design. The end design has no mass properties and you can’t add features such as holes, etc. directly.

With a basic (low-end) 3D modeling program, to draw that same wall you would not have to draw individual lines- instead, you would click on an icon for the ‘draw wall’ command and use your mouse (or trackball) to specify the length and location. To insert a door, you simply specify the size and location of the door- the software automatically erases that portion of the wall where the door goes. Over the course of designing an entire house or building, tools such as these can save countless hours. You can then use the solid model to generate views of the project from any viewpoint or angle- something that 2D programs cannot do.

3D parametric solid modeling represents the high end of CAD. With 3D parametric solid modeling programs such as Alibre Design , Solid Works and Solid Edge, the designer must use what is called ‘design intent’. This means that the design has to be thought of as a real world representation of the object. You are able or unable to make changes to the object the same way you would make them to a real world object. Therefore, parametric solids require the designer to think ahead and consider his actions carefully.

The top-end systems include the ability to add more organic aesthetics and features to the design, such as photorealistic colors and surface textures. Surface modeling combined with solid modeling is used to create most day-to-day products for consumers.The CAD designer should be forward-looking as he designs and the objective should be to make future work on the design as easy as possible. This means the designer needs to have a firm understanding of the system being used. A little extra attention and careful planning in design now can save a lot of grief later.

In the late 1980’s the advent of affordable CAD programs that ran on desktop computers led to downsizing in the drafting departments of many small- to mid-sized companies. Typically one CAD operator could replace three to five drafters using traditional drafting techniques. Also many engineers opted to do their own drafting work which eliminated the need for dedicated drafters.This phenomenon was also reflected in other areas of the typical office. As word processors, databases, spreadsheets, etc. became the norm, many jobs were eliminated as multiple functions across several jobs could now be done by one person on a single computer.

The adoption of the CAD studio, or as it is also called ‘paper-less studio’, in design schools was met with major resistance. Teachers were afraid that designing and sketching on a computer screen could not duplicate the artistry of traditional sketching on a drafting pad. Also, many teachers were worried that students would be hired, not for their design skills, but for their software and computer skills. Today CAD is recognized as an essential design tool and is taught across the board in architecture schools.It is interesting to note that not all architects have joined the CAD bandwagon. Australian architect Glenn Murcutt, winner of the 2002 Pritzker Architecture Prize, has a small office with minimal CAD capability.

Different CAD Industries

CAD drafting is now used in all phases of design across all industries. Specific industries have developed specialized applications of CAD systems. Below are some of the main industries using CAD and their related CAD applications.
The AEC (Architecture, Engineering and Construction) Industry

  • Residential and Commercial Architecture & Design
  • Landscape Architecture
  • Structural Engineering
  • Construction
  • Civil Engineering
  • Mapping and Surveying
  • Highways and Roads
  • Water and Sewer Systems
  • Factory Layout
  • Industrial Plant Design
  • Aerospace
  • Automotive
  • Machinery
  • Consumer Goods
  • Shipbuilding
  • Biomechanical Systems
  • Electronic and Electrical (ECAD)
  • Digital Circuit Design
  • Fashion Design
  • Computer Graphic Animation (CGA)

CAD Drafting Today

One of the major advantages – and one of the biggest payoffs – of CAD drafting today, is the reduction in design time and therefore the amount of money it can save on a project. In manufacturing, CAD drafting helps keep design costs down which translates into cost savings for the consumer.

In residential or commercial design the amount of time saved can be enormous. As an example, let’s say you are looking for a designer or architect to design your home. The designer can create a design: (a) from scratch based on your idea or concept; (b) from photos of actual houses; or (c) based on a previous design which can be easily modified in CAD.

CAD design companies will typically have many different home or building designs available to choose from. It is easy for a client to look through the designs then select one they like. They can use the design as-is or easily customize it to their own tastes. Clients can even take design elements from different projects and combine them to create an entirely new home or building. The possibilities are endless.

Making small changes to a CAD design- for instance, moving walls, windows or even whole rooms- typically takes minutes or hours, not days. This would have been a huge and very expensive task in the days before CAD drafting.

There are many CAD design companies that can serve your residential or commercial design needs and many of them offer complete project management as well as design and drafting of the project.

CAD drafting will no doubt continue to evolve and become more powerful, and remain, next to the computer, as one of the most important technological developments of our age. Australian Design & Drafting Services provide excellent service for CAD Design and  Drafting.  Contact Us for more info

CAD, CAD Technology, dynamic modeling, CAD modeling

How CAD Technology benefits from Dynamic Modeling

Alexander Pope, in the 17 th century, coined the phrase “A little knowledge is a dangerous thing”. This phrase holds true in many cases, because a small amount of knowledge could lead to overconfidence. An overconfident person is likely to make decisions hastily without taking all facts into account.

What does this phrase have to do with Computer Aided Design? A CAD engineer who is trained primarily to use CAD software tools, but who lacks sound theoretical training, fits this phrase in many respects. Such a CAD engineer who has successfully solved many routine design problems with CAD tools could become overconfident in his/her design skills.

The time will come when this overconfident engineer, who lacks adequate theoretical training, models a non-routine problem incorrectly and misinterprets the results. Consequently, an incorrect design for a product is implemented. Unless the design error is caught and fixed, the launched product will be an accident waiting to happen. Failure of a poorly-designed product could cost a company a lot of time, money, and loss of reputation.

Many CAD and engineering organizations are aware of such dangers, and they include Dynamic Modeling into their product design cycles. Doing so provides “checks and balances” before a design materializes into a product.

This article examines the roles that Dynamic Modeling plays in CAD-driven product design.

Specifically, the article tries to answer these questions:

  • What is Dynamic Modeling, and is it needed for all product designs?
  • Are all CAD engineers qualified to perform CAD enabled dynamic modeling?
  • What are the benefits of Dynamic Modeling?
  • How is Dynamic Modeling being used?

What Is Dynamic Modeling and Is It Needed for all Product Designs?

Dynamic modeling simulates the behavior of an object over time. In engineering, dynamic models are described in terms of causal loops or feedback and control systems.

The causal loop captures the structural makeup or components that comprise a complex system or product, and the interactions between them. Computer models are built to simulate how the system responds to time-varying states and external loads, and how the system responds over time.

Dynamic modeling is not restricted to time-variant behavior of physical structures, but it is also used for artificial intelligence, economics, psychology, political science, and many other disciplines.

Not all products require dynamic modeling. For example, stationary objects such as statues are not subjected often to time varying externals loads such as wind forces or earthquakes. Therefore, static models suffice for determining their structural integrity.

Examples of good candidates for dynamic modeling are:

  • Bridges, which experience variable loadings, wind forces, and perhaps earthquakes.
  • Offshore oil production platforms, which are subjected to ocean waves, wind, and current loadings.
  • Automobiles, which are subjected to shock loadings and aerodynamic forces.
  • Buildings and structures in earthquake-prone areas, because they endure seismic loadings.  

Are all CAD Engineers Qualified to Perform CAD Enabled Modeling?

Not all CAD engineers have the skills to perform dynamic modeling adequately. CAD software tools which provide its capabilities will incorporate them as FEA, CFD, and other software packages. The CAD engineer who has not taken advanced courses in Solid Mechanics, Fluid Mechanics, Feedback and Control Systems, Vibration Analysis, Random Mechanics, and similar courses may lack sufficient theoretical skills to adequately model and interpret non-routine design problems with CAD software.

Dynamic modeling which is performed incorrectly could produce design errors with disastrous consequences, if the errors:

  • Are not detected and corrected by peers,
  • Are not detected during design reviews,
  • Are not detected during the prototyping and testing phase.

Once a poorly designed product is launched, the consequences could mean applying fixes in the field, having a product recall, or withdrawing a product. None of these options is desirable, because it creates customer dissatisfaction, possible lawsuits, loss of income, and loss of reputation.

What are the Benefits of Dynamic Modeling?

If properly performed, Dynamic Modeling can reveal design flaws that may not show up readily during the prototyping and testing phases of the product design cycle.

Unique benefits that dynamic modeling provides include:

  • Identifying interactions between subsystems of a complex product which may be too expensive to create during physical prototyping and testing,
  • Identifying potential failure modes which should be tested in physical prototypes, before hard tooling,
  • Simulating dynamic loadings which may be difficult to create during actual testing,
  • Identifying functional limitations on the use of a product.

Although some complex systems may be difficult to model accurately, it provides extra product performance data from virtual prototypes. Testing and validation of data obtained from virtual prototypes within physical prototypes should create a robust and reliable design.

How is Dynamic Modeling being used?

A few examples should clarify the benefits that Dynamic Modeling brings to CAD design work.

  • Engineers at NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) are building a horizontal smokestack computer model called the Scale-Model Smokestack Simulator. The Dynamic Model will predict the amount of carbon dioxide coming out of smokestacks with 1% accuracy, compared with current measurement accuracy of 10 to 20%. This Dynamic Model will make it easier to address the problem of CO2 emissions which the EPA is concerned about.
  • The University of Le Havre uses Dynamic Modeling to efficiently calculate optimized mold measurements for a ship hull.
  • SolidWorks provides modeling software within their CAD offerings for all types of industrial robot movements. The software also translates code from one robot to another, and can import models from major CAD systems.
  • It is being used extensively to study the impact of Self Driving vehicles on traffic flow.

Conclusions

When it is used effectively and correctly, creates virtual product prototypes that can identify failure modes and functional limitations of a design at an early stage.

When dynamic modeling is used together with Additive Manufacturing (or 3D printing) for physical product prototyping, the design cycle could be significantly shortened. Consequently, reliable and cost effective products will be launched, and the cost saving will benefit both the product manufacturer and the consumer.

Australian Design & Drafting Services provide excellent service for CAD Design and  Drafting.  Contact Us for more info

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